There is a threefold approach to training in HyResponder: educational training, operational training and virtual reality training. All elements form part of a training package and underpin the EERG. Supporting materials for each of these elements can be found on this Platform.
|ACH Air change per hour||ALARP As low as reasonably possible|
|APU Auxiliary power unit||BEV Battery electric vehicle|
|BLEVE Boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion||CCTV Closed-circuit television|
|CEP Clean energy partnership||CFD Computational fluid dynamics|
|CFRP Carbon fibre reinforced plastic||CGH2 Hydrogen stored as compressed gas|
|CHP Combined heat and power||CNG Compressed natural gas|
|CVR Cockpit voice recorder||DCS Distributed control system|
|DDT Deflagration-to-detonation transition||DIC Driver’s information centre|
|DOE Department of energy of the US||EIGA European industrial gases association|
|EMSA European maritime safety organization||ELT Emergency locator transmitter|
|ESD Emergency shut-down device||FCH Fuel cell and hydrogen|
|FC Fuel cell||FCEV Fuel cell electric vehicle|
|FCTO Fuel cell technologies office||FCV Fuel cell vehicle|
|FDR Flight data recorder||FED Field effect gas detectors|
|FRP Fibre-reinforced polymer/plastic||GH2 Gaseous hydrogen|
|GHG Greenhouse gas||GSE Ground support equipment|
|GTR Global technical regulations||HAZOP Hazard and operability study|
|HE Hydrogen embrittlement||HEM Homogeneous equilibrium|
|HFM Homogeneous frozen||HGV Heavy goods vehicle|
|HNEM Homogeneous non-equilibrium flash model||HPV Hydrogen-powered vehicle|
|HRR Heat release rate||HRS Hydrogen refuelling station|
|HSE Hydrogen safety engineering||HSL Health and safety laboratory|
|HTI Heat transfer index||HTS High-temperature shift|
|ICE Internal combustion engine||IMO International maritime organization|
|IR Infrared||JIVE Joint initiative for hydrogen vehicles across Europe|
|KIT Karlsruhe institute of technology||KHI Kawasaki heavy industries|
|KSC Kennedy space centre||LDL Lower detonation limit|
|LES Large eddy simulation||LFL Lower flammability limit|
|LH2 Liquified hydrogen||LHRS Liquid hydrogen refuelling station|
|LLNL Lawrence Livermore national laboratory||LNB Leak-no-burst|
|LNG Liquid nature gas||LPG Liquid petroleum gas|
|MEA Membrane electrode assembly||MEMS Micro electro mechanic system|
|MIE Minimum ignition energy||MLI Multi-layer insulation|
|NBP Normal boiling point||NP Neutral plane|
|NTP Normal temperature and pressure||NWP Normal working pressure|
|PEM Proton exchange membrane||PPE Personal protective equipment|
|PPP Pressure peaking phenomenon||PRD Pressure relief device|
|PRT Rapid phase transition||PRV Pressure relief valve|
|PSV Pressure safety valve||QDR Qualitative design review|
|QRA Quantitative risk assessment||RANS Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes|
|RCS Regulations, codes and standards||RHTI Radiative heat transfer indices|
|RMPP Risk management prevention plan||SCC Stress corrosion cracking|
|SD Separation distance||SDO Standard development organisation|
|SLH2 Slush hydrogen||SIL Safety integrity level|
|SMR Steam methane reforming/reformer||SNL Sandia National Laboratory|
|SOFC Solid oxide fuel cell||SS Stainless steel|
|STP Standard temperature and pressure||SUV Sport utility vehicle|
|TCO Total cost of ownership||TDU Thermal dose unit|
|TPL Thermal protection layer||TPRD Thermal-activated pressure relief device|
|TRL Technology readiness level||TSS Technical sub-systems|
|UAV Unmanned aerial vehicle||UDL Upper detonation limit|
|UFL Upper flammability limit||UV Ultraviolet|
|UVCE Unconfined vapour cloud explosion||VCE Vapour cloud explosion|
|ZND Zeldovich, von Neumann and Doring model|
- Acceptance criteria are the terms of reference, against which safe design of a FCH facility/infrastructure is assessed.
- Ambient pressure cycling test is a test for hydrogen tanks not failing before reaching 11,250 fill cycles (representing a 15-year life of use in commercial heavy-duty vehicles).
- Auto-ignition temperature is the minimum temperature required to initiate the combustion reaction of fuel-oxidiser mixture in the absence of an external source of ignition.
- Blow-down is a process where the storage pressure decreases with time during a leak.
- Blow-off is the flame extinguishment at a high velocity without a lift-off.
- Blow-out is the flame extinguishment at high velocity with a lift-off.
- Blow-out limit is a fuel flow velocity limit beyond which a lifted flame blows out.
- Bonfire test is a test for the tank venting through the non-reclosing TPRD and not failing when exposed to a bonfire of 20 minutes duration.
- Brush discharge is a discharge between a charged insulator and a conducting earthed point.
- Catastrophic rupture is that gaseous hydrogen from a high-pressure storage container before its walls are weakened by high temperatures.
- Cell size is the parameter that characterises the detonation sensitivity of a hydrogen-air mixture.
- Corona discharge is a silent, usually continuous, discharge with a current but without a plasma channel.
- Deflagration is a term to describe ‘to burn down’, which is subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer; hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it.Itis the process following the weak ignition in a combustible mixture, which propagates at a subsonic speed into fresh, unburned mixture.
- Detonation is the phenomenon of combustion zone propagating at the velocity higher than the speed of sound (supersonic) in the unreacted mixture. It is the worst case of accidental hydrogen combustion.
- Drop-back is the reattachment to the nozzle of a lifted flame by a decrease of lift-off velocity.
- Effective diameter is the jet diameter at the location where expansion down to 1 bar takes place, in an under-expanded jet.
- Expanded jet is the jet with a pressure at the nozzle exit equal to atmospheric pressure.
- Expansion coefficient is the ratio of the unburnt mixture density to the density of combustion products at the same pressure.
- Fire-resistance rating is a measure of time for which a passive fire protection system can withstand a standard fire resistance test.
- Flame lift-off is the condition, in which the flame and a burner become separated.
- Flame speed is the velocity of the flame with the respect to a fixed observer.
- Flammability range is the range of concentrations between the lower and the upper flammability limits. The lower flammability limit(LFL) is the lowest concentration, and the upper flammability limit (UFL) is the highest concentration of a combustible substance in a gaseous oxidizer that will propagate a flame.
- Flashing is a process occurs when LH2 at a high pressure is transferred from trucks and rail cars to a low-pressure vessel.
- Flashpoint is the lowest temperature, at which the fuel produces enough vapours to form a flammable mixture with air at its surface.
- Froude number (Fr) is the dimensionless number equal to the ratio of inertial to gravity force.
- Hazard distance is the minimum distance, which separates “specific targets (e.g. people, structures or equipment) from the consequences of potential accidents related to the operation a hydrogen facility”.
- Hydrostatic burst test is a test for tank burst, for which the pressure typically more than 2.25 times of the working pressure.
- Incapacitation is a condition, under which humans do not function adequately and unable to escape untenable conditions.
- Laminar burning velocity is the rate of flame propagation relative to the velocity of the unburnt gas that is ahead of it, under stated conditions of composition, temperature, and pressure of the unburned gas.
- Leading point is the leading edge of flame front, typically a flamelet structure, which is responsible for the propagation of flame.
- Leak-before-break test is the test for the tank failing by leakage or shall exceed the number of filling cycles.
- Lift-off height is the height from the nozzle exit to the base of a lifted flame.
- Lift-off velocity is the fuel flow velocity causing a flame to be detached from the nozzle.
- Mach number is the dimensionless number equal to the ratio of the local flow velocity to the local speed of sound.
- Maximum experimental safe gap of flammable gases and vapours is the lowest value of the safe gap measured, according to IEC 60079-1- 1 (2002), by varying the composition of the mixture.
- Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is the maximum pressure, to which any component or portion of the pressure system can be subjected over the entire range of design temperatures .
- Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE) of flammable gases and vapours is the minimum value of the electric energy, stored in the discharge circuit with as small a loss in the leads as possible, which (upon discharge across a spark gap) just ignites the quiescent mixture in the most ignitable composition.
- Normal temperature and pressure (NTP) conditions are temperature of 293.15 K and pressure of 101.325 kPa.
- Nominal working pressure is a gauge pressure, which characterises typical operation of a system.
- Non-premixed flame (often called a diffusion flame) is the flame, in which the oxidiser and the fuel are not mixed prior to reaching a flame front. During combustion oxidiser combines with a fuel by diffusion. The flame speed is limited by the rate of diffusion.
- Occupants are people present within the boundaries of a FCH facility/infrastructure including personnel involved in its operation and maintenance as well as the customers/visitors.
- Ortho-para-hydrogen conversion is the conversion of hydrogen between ortho-to para-hydrogen.
- Overpressure is the pressure in a blast wave above the atmospheric pressure, or the pressure within a containment structure that exceeds the maximum allowable working pressure of the containment structure.
- Permeation is the movement of atoms, molecules, or ions into or through a porous or permeable substance.
- Penetration test is the test for the tank not rupturing when an armour piercing bullet or an impactor with a diameter of 7.62 mm or greater fully penetrates its wall.
- Place of safety is a predetermined place inside or outside an FCH facility/infrastructure, in which persons are not in immediate danger from the effect of hydrogen release, fire or explosion.
- Premixed flame is the flame, in which the oxidiser has been mixed with the fuel prior to the reaching the flame front. Combustion of premixed fuel and oxidiser forms a thin flame front due to the reactants being readily available.
- Public are people present outside the boundaries of an FCH facility/infrastructure.
- Quenching distance is the maximum distance between two parallel plates that will extinguish a flame passing between them. The quenching distance decreases with the pressure and temperature increase. It also depends on the mixture composition.
- Quenching gap is the spark gap between two flat parallel-plate electrodes at which ignition of combustible fuel-air mixtures is suppressed. The quenching gap is the passage gap dimension requirement to prevent propagation of an open flame through a flammable fuel-air mixture that fills the passage.
- Rarefaction wave is also called a relief wave, an unloading wave, and a Taylor wave. It is the progression of particles being accelerated away from a compressed or shocked zone. It travels in the direction opposite to the acceleration of the particles.
- Residual thermal leak is the heat leakage loss proportional to the ratio of surface area to the volume of the storage vessel.
- Reynolds number (Re) is the dimensionless number that gives a measure of the ratio of inertial to viscous forces.
- Sensitive area is the establishment, infrastructure or equipment containing inventories of dangerous substances that can become a source of harm when targeted by a hydrogen incident/accident.
- Sloshing is a motion of LH2 in a vessel due to acceleration or deceleration, which occurs during its transportation by tankers. Some of the impact energy of the liquid against the vessel is converted to thermal energy.
- Spark discharge is a single plasma channel between a high potential conductor and an earthed conductor.
- Survivability is the maximum exposure that may be received with a negligible statistical probability of fatality/damage and without impairment of an individual’s ability to escape.
- Tenability is the maximum exposure to hazards from a hydrogen incident/accident that can be tolerated without violating safety goals.
- Threshold is the maximum intensity or dose for a given hazard that corresponds to a specific physiological (for humans) or structural (for structures and equipment) response.
- Throttled expansion is to describe the majority of gases are usually cooled when expanded from high to low pressure through a porous plug, a small aperture or a nozzle.
- Under-expanded jet is a jet with a pressure at the nozzle exit above the atmospheric pressure.
- Under-ventilated fire is characterised by relatively high hydrogen release rate when oxygen is consumed at a faster rate than it can be replenished through the ventilation. In the case where there is insufficient ventilation the flame will be ventilation-controlled.
- Visible flame length is the centerline distance from the tip of the nozzle to the flame end.
- Well-ventilated fire is characterized by a relatively low hydrogen release rate and complete combustion of hydrogen within the enclosure.